Galileo – Best Guide in 2023

Galileo, also known as Galileo Galilei, was an Italian natural philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician. He was born in Pisa, Italy, on February 15, 1564, and died close by in Arcetri. 8.01.1642 in Florence. Galileo made important discoveries in the areas of motion, astronomy, strength of materials, and the scientific method. The field of motion analysis underwent a seismic shift as a result of his development of (circular) inertia, the law of falling bodies, and parabolic trajectories. He insisted that experimentation was a legitimate means of discovering the laws of nature, which led to natural philosophy changing from a verbal, qualitative account to a mathematical one. His telescope discoveries, which revolutionized astronomy, led to the acceptance of the Copernican heliocentric system in the future. The Inquisition eventually turned against him due to his advocacy of the Copernican heliocentric system.


Young Age

String tension may have been the focus of some experiments Vincenzo Galilei and Galileo carried out in 1588-1589. The family moved to Florence, where the Galilei ancestors had lived for many years, at the beginning of the 1570s. Galileo attended the monastery school in Vallombrosa, a town near Florence, when he was in his mid-teens. He enrolled at the University of Pisa in 1581 in order to study medicine. But as time went on, he came to love mathematics, and in defiance of his father, he made the decision to pursue a career in philosophy and mathematical studies.

A few of Galileo’s lectures have been preserved, and he later started getting ready to teach Aristotelian philosophy and mathematics. Without earning a degree, Galileo left the university in 1585. For several years after that, he gave private math lessons in Florence and Siena. La bilancetta, also known as “The Little Balance,” is a brief treatise that he wrote and distributed in manuscript form at this time. He also created a brand-new kind of hydrostatic balance specifically for weighing tiny amounts. He also began his motion studies, which he continued steadily for the next 20 years.

Galileo tried unsuccessfully in 1588 to get the chair of mathematics at the University of Bologna. The Florentine Academy, a prestigious literary organization, requested him to give two lectures on the layout of Dante’s Inferno’s world later that year as word of his reputation spread. Additionally, he made some clever theorems on centers of gravity (again, circulated in manuscript) that gained him respect from mathematicians and the patronage of nobleman Guidobaldo del Monte (1545–1607), the author of several important works on mechanics.

In order to do this, he was given the mathematics chair at the University of Pisa in 1589. In order to disprove Aristotle’s assertion that the speed at which a heavy object falls is proportional to its weight, according to Galileo’s first biographer Vincenzo Viviani (1622–1703), the scientist dropped bodies of varying weights from the top of the famed Leaning Tower. During this time, Galileo completed the manuscript tract De motu (On Motion), which documents his switch from Aristotelian to Archimedean theories of motion. However, because of the hostility he caused among his academic peers, his contract was not renewed in 1592. But because of his sponsors, he was able to hold the University of Padua’s mathematics chair from 1592 to 1610.

Astronomical Discoveries

But at this point, Galileo’s career made a dramatic turn. He discovered that a device to make distant objects appear nearby was created in the Netherlands in the spring of 1609. Using lenses he purchased from eyeglass stores, he quickly figured out the invention’s secret through trial and error and built his own three-powered spyglass. Others had done the same, but Galileo stood out because he picked up on instrument improvement quickly, became an expert at lens grinding, and constructed increasingly potent telescopes. Padua delivered an eight-powered instrument to the Venetian Senate in August of that same year (he was in the Venetian Republic). His pay was doubled, and as payment he was given life tenure.

Galileo was currently one of the university’s faculty members earning one of the highest salaries. In the autumn of 1609, Galileo first used telescopes with a 20-fold magnification to study the heavens. He drew a picture of the Moon’s phases as seen through a telescope in December to show that it is not smooth, as was once thought, but rather has textures and irregularities. In January 1610, he discovered four Jupiter-centered moons. In addition, he found that the telescope revealed many more stars than are visible with the unaided eye. As revolutionary as they were, Galileo described these discoveries in a brief book he titled Sidereus Nuncius (The Sidereal Messenger). He dedicated the book to Cosimo II de Medici (1590–1621), the grand duke of Tuscany, whom he had tutored in mathematics over a number of summers, and named the moons of Jupiter the Sidera Medicea, or “Medicean Stars,” in honor of the Medici family. As the mathematician and philosopher for the grand duke of Tuscany, Galileo was rewarded with a position, and in the fall of 1610, he triumphantly returned to his native country.

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