John Locke – Best Guide in 2023

The philosopher John Locke was born in Somerset, England, and spent his entire life there. On October 28, 1704, in High Laver, Essex, he was born. His writings serve as the basis for contemporary philosophical empiricism and political liberalism. In addition to the European Enlightenment, he was a driving force behind the creation of the American Constitution.
John Locke
John Locke

John Locke

The Royal Society members whose philosophical outlook was closest to that of the forefathers of modern science included Robert Boyle, Sir Isaac Newton, and others. His political philosophy was based on the notion of a social contract between citizens as well as the importance of tolerance, particularly with regard to religious matters. Many of his political ideas were adopted after the Glorious Revolution in England in 1688-1689 and the American Declaration of Independence in 1776.
the initial stages.Locke’s family supported Puritanism while continuing to be Church of England members, which had an impact on his later life and ideas. The English Civil Wars, which pitted the Charles I monarchy against parliamentary forces led by Oliver Cromwell, began when Locke was 10 years old. Locke was raised in Pensford, a town close to Bristol. As a captain in the parliamentarian cavalry, Locke’s father, a lawyer, experienced a small amount of combat. Assuming this is the case, Locke most likely rejected the notion that the king had a divine right to rule at a young age.


In the fall of 1652, when Locke was only 20 years old, a relatively late age for a student, he enrolled in Christ Church, the largest college at Oxford University and the site of Charles I’s court during the English Civil War. But Oxford’s days as a royalist university were long gone, and the majority of the positions were filled by Puritans who backed Cromwell. When Cromwell was chancellor, John Owen, a former chaplain, served as vice-chancellor and dean. On the other hand, Owen and Cromwell were eager to get the university back to normal as soon as possible, and they were largely successful in doing so.


The first Earl of Shaftesbury, Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper, and Locke were first introduced to one another in 1666 through a mutual friend. Ashley, a member and later the leader of the Whigs, an opposition political party, was among the most significant figures in England during the first 20 years after the Restoration. Ashley was so taken with Locke after their first meeting, despite the fact that Locke did not yet hold a medical degree, that the following year he asked him to become his personal physician and aide, to join his Lndon family in Exeter House on the Strand.. Ashley supported a Protestant succession, civil liberties, religious tolerance, constitutional monarchy, and the expansion of the English economy from a political perspective. All of these objectives were ones that Locke either already shared with him or would eventually come to share with him. It didn’t take them long to reach a mutual understanding that was both profound and important to them both. In his capacity as a doctor, Locke took part in a remarkable procedure to insert a silver tube into a liver tumor on Ashley in order to monitor it. He wrote tolerance-related papers for Ashley’s potential use in parliamentary speeches. on a regular basis. drained and easing a lot of his discomfort. It stayed in place for the rest of Ashley’s life. Locke also found an appropriate bride for Ashley’s son.

France Exile

Ashley, the first earl of Shaftesbury, was made a peer in 1672, and by the end of the year, he was appointed lord chancellor of England. However, he was promptly fired after losing Charles II’s favor. Shaftesbury and Locke briefly put themselves in danger, which contributed to Locke’s decision to travel to France in 1675. He was now enrolled as a medical student at Christ Church after receiving his bachelor of medicine from Oxford.

Two Legal Treatises

Shaftesbury was detained, put on trial, and ultimately found not guilty of treason by a London jury in 1681 after being fired for failing to unite the interests of the king and Parliament. The following year, he left the nation and passed away there in 1683. None of Shaftesbury’s known friends in England were at present safe. Locke left under close scrutiny in September 1683 for Holland.

In 1689, Locke’s groundbreaking work on political philosophy, Two Treatises of Government, came into being. Its exact composition date is disputed by experts, but it was undoubtedly written in large part before Locke escaped to Holland. In this way, the Two Treatises were a response to the English political atmosphere at the time of the exclusion debate, but their message had far more long-lasting effects. The preface to the work, which was written at a later date and is where Locke makes clear that the two treatises’ arguments are connected, serves as a defense of the Glorious Revolution, which put the Protestant William III and Mary II on the throne after James II fled to France, and that the entire work is a defense of that revolution.

Locke’s theory of political power clearly has a moral component. A “right” that serves “the public good” is the creation and enforcement of laws. “. For Locke, “power” always refers to “morally sanctioned capacity,” not just “capacity.”. To use a tautology, morality permeates every aspect of society’s structure, and it is this fact that gives society legitimacy.
An Essay on Understanding in Humans.

Related Posts

Donald Trump – Best Guide in 2023

Barack Obama – Best Guide in 2023

George Washington – Best Guide in 2023

Leave a Comment